Social networks of a few Data Donors—with clusters of friends given different colors. Credit: Wolfram Alpha The biggest area of mined data however, appears to be centered around how many friends people have, how many friends their friends have, the number of friend clusters, their size and how it all changes as people grow older (they tend to have fewer friends but more clusters). One surprise was that one report showed that most people have friends that are mostly near the same age until they reach age 50—after that, younger friends begin to grow to the point where they overshadow those of the same age, presumably because they begin to reflect children, grand-children, etc. Wolfram Alpha expands Facebook analytics Explore further (Phys.org) —Stephen Wolfram, chief designer for the Mathematica software application and Wolfram Alpha answer engine has posted a blog entry detailing reports generated using the company’s software as part of a project called the Data Donor program. As Wolfram notes, the reports offer some insights into how people use Facebook, their relationships with other people and their interests—all compared against others that also use Facebook, by gender, age and interests. What’s most interesting about the reports offered by Wolfram, et al, perhaps, is that so much information can be gleaned about people, both individually and as part of larger group, from a publicly available source. Such a revelation is likely to spur concern about how else such data is being used and by whom. One of these is a report that shows that men talk about music and movies more than do women. Another reveals societal trends, such as the number of people listing themselves as married after age 30—exploding to the extent that all other statuses appear nearly irrelevant. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Wolfram Alpha data reveals social/personal patterns of Facebook users (2013, April 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-wolfram-alpha-reveals-socialpersonal-patterns.html © 2013 Phys.org The Data Donor program was and is one where people are asked to allow Wolfram and his colleagues to use their Facebook data as input for Mathematica and the answer engine. To date, over a million people have volunteered. Now, Wolfram has revealed some of what he and his company have found—personal analytics in the form of charts and graphs—courtesy of Facebook.The project has revealed some fascinating information—such as what sorts of things people are likely to post about as they grow older, which age group tends to use Facebook more, the age at which people marry and even the distribution of friends people have on the social networking site.The project isn’t perfect of course, those that agree to submit to analyses by Wolfram and his team are much more likely to be avid Facebook users, which in turn likely means they have more friends, social circles and post more often. Wolfram acknowledges this by noting that while the reports show the typical Facebook user has 342 friends, other studies have shown that the majority of Facebook users actually have few to no friends listed at all. Despite that, the reports do offer some intriguing evidence of personal preferences and trends.
(Phys.org) —The process of molecular hydrogen formation is a key factor in astrophysics – specifically in the physics and chemistry of interstellar clouds. An electrically neutral atom containing a single positively charged proton and a single negatively charged electron bound to the nucleus by the Coulomb force, hydrogen is the lightest element and, in its monatomic (unbound single atom) form, known as H1, is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the universe’s baryonic mass (that is, excluding so-called dark matter and dark energy). Hydrogen formed at an early stage of the universe during expansion, when the temperature dropped enough to reduce the rate of ionization processes and triggered the plasma-neutral phase transition of the primordial gas. This, in turn, decoupled matter from radiation and led to the appearance of the cosmic background radiation. In addressing these challenges, Martinazzo and his colleagues leveraged what they had learned from previous experience – namely, that quantum effects were important at extremely low energy only, and that many of the problems afflicting present results could be tackled with a classical approach. “However,” he adds, “we realized though that there was no chance to build a reasonable potential model suited for our problem and decided to adopt an ab initio molecular dynamics approach.”AIMD is the method of choice in these situations since it solves the problem of building a model potential by computing the forces required by the dynamics itself on the fly, and does so by explicitly considering the electrons which generate these forces. “Because of this,” Martinazzo points out, “AIMD can be considered an unbiased approach whose accuracy is solely determined by the quality of the level of electronic structure chosen, provided that a classical approach for the atom dynamics is adequate. That being said, I’m sure that thanks to ever-increasing computing power, it will soon become the method of choice for tackling challenging problems at an atomic scale.”In addition, says Martinazzo, the researchers finally established with reasonable accuracy the efficiency of the Eley-Rideal reaction mechanism, and provided thermal rate constants which can be directly used in modeling the chemical evolution of interstellar clouds. “It’s actual role in forming hydrogen in space – particularly in those regions which are too hot for the more common Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism to occur – remains yet to be established,” he acknowledges, “and much depends on the composition and morphology of the dust grain, which something that’s hard to assess at present.”Regarding the possibility of facile sticking at special dust grain surface sites, Martinazzo says that they used a very crude model to show that facile sticking may provide a robust mechanism operating under different conditions, but adds that they hope that astrochemists will utilize main results to improve models with accurate microscopic information. “In turn,” he adds, “on comparing with observations, this could help deepening our understanding of the nature of dust grains and the role they play in the chemistry of the interstellar medium.”In term of next steps, the scientists are currently investigating how hydrogen atoms stick on graphite. “As suggested in our paper,” notes Martinazzo, “the focus is on defective sites where facile sticking may occur – locations where classical dynamics and, fortunately, AIMD work well. However,” he adds, “we’re also addressing sticking on the basal plane of graphite, in conditions where it can only occur thanks to the quantum nature of matter and its ability to tunnel through classically forbidden regions – a simple but rather challenging problem awaiting definite answers.”Martinazzo also describes other areas of research that might benefit from findings:Hydrogen-graphite interactions, which because of their many interesting aspects have long been studied in diverse fields In thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as JET and ITER, graphitic compounds are among the plasma facing materials which make up the so-called box which holds the sun – and In the cold plasma region hydrogen is neutralized and impacts on the surface where sticks and eventually reactsIn the same context, at least in principle, hydrogen formation on graphite may be used for the negative ion injectors which heat up the plasma, since they deliver vibrationally hot molecules that can be readily dissociated by electron impacts, thereby producing negatively charged H atomsIn graphene technology, hydrogen atoms represent a powerful tool to modify its electronic transport properties, eventually opening a band gap in a controlled way and make graphene suitable for logic applications”In all these cases,” Martinazzo concludes, “knowing details of the behavior of hydrogen atoms on graphene and graphite may help finding the most appropriate operational conditions for achieving specific goals or limiting undesired effects.” That being said, monatomic (or, alternatively, atomic) hydrogen atoms are rare, with hydrogen preferring to combine with other atoms in compounds, or with itself to form ordinary (diatomic or molecular) hydrogen gas, or H2. In the interstellar medium (ISM) – which comprises the matter (including gas and dust) that exists in the space between a galaxy’s star systems – H2 plays many vital roles, including serving as a chemical precursor for more complex, shielding the clouds from the ambient radiation field, and acting as primary cooling agent during the gravitational collapse that basic to star formation. Moreover, the presence of H2 in the early universe led to the emergence of the first stars and induced galaxy formation.Recently, scientists at Università degli Studi di Milano and Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, both in Milan, Italy, studied direct (Eley–Rideal, or ER) recombination-based formation – a surface reaction mechanism, proposed in 1938 by D. D. Eley and E. K. Rideal, in which only one of the molecules adsorbs and the other one reacts with it directly from the gas phase, without adsorbing – using ab initio molecular dynamics, or AIMD. (Ab initio techniques employ basic and established laws of nature without additional assumptions or special models.) The researchers found that ER is the dominant reaction at energies consonant with the interstellar medium if so-called facile sticking at edges, point defects, and other dust grain surface sites is possible as the scientists posit. At the same time, the scientists posit that their findings hold promise in research focused on hydrogen-graphite interaction in a range of diverse fields, including hydrogen storage, nuclear fusion, graphene technology, and interstellar chemistry.Prof. Rocco Martinazzo discussed the research he, Dr. Simone Casolo and Prof. Gian Franco Tantardini conducted, as well as the challenges they faced, with Phys.org. “The ab initio approach in molecular dynamics is a relatively new entry in computational chemistry/physics,” Martinazzo tells Phys.org, “and it’s now possible thanks to the huge increase of computing power over the past few years.” Nevertheless, he adds, it remains highly demanding for quantitative studies where precise statistics are required, meaning that considerable effort is required to find a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. Relative populations of HD product rovibrational (coupled rotational and vibrational molecular excitation) states. (Left) Experimental data taken from ref. 29. (Right) AIMD results for HD formed in collisions of H atoms with chemisorbed D. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1301433110 More information: Insights into H2 formation in space from ab initio molecular dynamics. PNAS Published online before print April 9, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1301433110 Explore further © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. Citation: Of grains and graphite: Simulating interstellar hydrogen formation (2013, May 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-grains-graphite-simulating-interstellar-hydrogen.html (Left) Two reactive trajectories at Ecoll = 0.02 eV (∼2 kJ/mol) showing projectile steering, projectile H trajectory (full line), target H trajectory (dashed line). (Right) Aiming points location for 1,000 AIMD trajectories at Ecoll = 0.02 eV, the reactive ones are shown in red. Target H atom is located at the center of the panel. The region in which reactive events occur is shaded in red as a guide to the eye. The blue and black dots correspond to the aiming points of the trajectories shown in Left. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1301433110 Chemical chameleon tamed: Researchers give floppy molecule a structure through solvent effects This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences The scientists’ molecular dynamics simulation Included lattice dynamics, surface corrugation and competing H-dimers formation processes – an approach usually performed ad hoc, Martinazzo notes, by building model potentials on the basis of a number of reasonable assumptions and fitting them to experimental and/or theoretical data available for specific atomic configurations. “However,” he continues, “the procedure is often too involved, and it is not guaranteed to result in a realistic interaction potential for the processes of interest. This is the case with graphite,” he illustrates, “where considerable effort has been put in the last few years to devise reliable models able to describe dimer formation, and to include the lattice dynamics in the energy balance of the reaction.” More specifically, the first process competes with H2 formation, possibly altering its outcome if not taken into account – but the lattice dynamics determines the correct amount of energy which stored in the hydrogen-hydrogen bond of the newly-formed molecule.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Scientists have known for years that introducing an electric field into a fire could cause changes to the shape of the flame. They’ve also known that doing so can cause the burning process to be more efficient—that’s because inefficiencies creep in when some fuel is not burned all the way (releasing soot), or is burned at too high of a temperature (creating and releasing nitrogen oxides). Until now, however, scientists have not been able to come up with a way to control a flame in a power plant using an electric field in a practical way. ClearSign is announcing on its website that it has found a way to do just that. They insert two probes directly into the burn area where the flame is, then apply a high amount of voltage (that is adjusted in real time by a computer) to continuously adjust the shape of the flame. Adjusting the flame shape usually takes the form of flattening it out so that heat is evenly distributed.ClearSign claims that its system (called Electrodynamic Combustion Control technology) can improve efficiency in a power plant by as much as thirty percent. That claim has not yet been verified by others outside the company, however. If the claims hold up the new technique could be just what the world needs—coal fired power plants are responsible for most of the smog that has made headlines of late as it chokes people in China and India.ClearSign says that their technology would reduce the amount of fuel a plant would use to produce the same amount of electricity and that it would also make other pollution control technologies moot which would mean lower start-up costs for the equipment and lower running costs due to reclamation of energy that has traditionally been dedicated to that purpose. More information: www.clearsign.com/via MIT Tech Review More efficient and economical capture of power plant carbon dioxide emissions © 2013 Phys.org (Phys.org) —Seattle based ClearSign Combustion has developed a way to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by power plants that burn fossil fuels. The technique, the company claims, also makes the burning of the fuels more efficient, which means utilities could actually save money by using the new technology. Citation: Company using electric field to shape flame to make power plants cleaner (2013, October 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-10-company-electric-field-flame-power.html Explore further
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Dr. Sebastian J. Streichan discussed the paper that he and his co-authors published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Regarding probing the impact of mechanical tissue perturbations on cell cycle progression, Streichan tells Phys.org that a central challenge is long-term live imaging of cultured cells. “On the one hand, the conditions have to be sterile over weeks not to contaminate the sample, and on the other hand keeping phototoxicity at a minimal level while having a reasonably high observation frequency. In addition, when dealing with cell cycle dynamics tissues subject to acute changes in boundary conditions, it’s critical to develop a boundary release assay that does not involve wounding the tissue, as previous research1 has shown – for example, a scratch wound assay can trigger chemical signals – and the same work also showed that growing cells against a removable barrier prevents this.” However, Streichan notes that tissue stretching and compression “were the trickiest experiments we had to perform – there were many small problems to overcome. For example, we discovered that the cells are very sensitive to the material used to build the stretcher, and had to systematically screen for material that allows for stable culturing of tissues.” Streichan points out that using kinetic analysis to show that cells have no memory of past constraints also had its hurdles. “We had to learn how to automatically segment cells while allowing for little loss, so that simple tracking methods could be applied – but the use of simple tracking methods introduced another challenge for microscopy, in which we had to be able to image frequently enough to reliably identify the nearest neighbor of cells, even in dynamic regions of the tissue.” Moreover, he adds, formulating a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to changes in spatial constraints in the environment is a slow process that involves the accumulation of many small observations. “The kind of cellular growth rule we should implement turned out to be important. For example,” he illustrates,” are cells an elastic material that is always growing, or is there some plastic growth control?” More information: Spatial constraints control cell proliferation in tissues, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111 no. 15, 5586-5591 (2014), doi:10.1073/pnas.1323016111Related:1Role of boundary conditions in an experimental model of epithelial wound healing, American Journal of Physiology – Cell Physiology, 291(1):C68–C75 (2006), doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00411.2005 Image processing, segmentation, cell area determination, and tracking. (A) Maximum-intensity projection at each pixel of a z-stack results in a single image for each field of view. (B) Fourier transform phase correlation-based stitching of each field of view results in a montage of the image for each time point. (C) Outline of the image segmentation routine. Original images are analyzed with ILASTIK using a random forest classifier. This results in a prediction map for each pixel, with probabilities between 0 and 1 indicating whether the pixel is part of a red or green nucleus or of the background. Thresholding of the prediction map yields segmentation. Computation of connected components allows one to distinguish individual nuclei and compute features of the nuclei, such as center of mass. (D) Determination of cell cross-sectional area with Voronoi tessellation and E-cadherin (E-Cad) antibody staining. Based on the segmentation of each nucleus, the center of mass is computed and the Voronoi tessellation is constructed, providing an estimate of cell area. E-Cad antibody staining (blue) and its segmentation (red) are used as a reference. (E) Comparison between the Voronoi area and cross-section based on E-Cad antibody staining. (F) Nearest-neighbor nuclei tracking. Cells at time t are assigned to the nearest neighbor at time t + 1 if the nearest neighbor is closer than a maximum distance computed by maximum crawling velocity and temporal sampling. (G) Individual cell tracks (color-coded). Credit: Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1323016111 (Phys.org) —One of the most important factors in tissue formation is the control of cell proliferation. While the fact that cells undergo a range of spatial and mechanical constraints, the ways the resulting mechanical feedback may affect cell cycle progression – and thus tissue cell proliferation pattern – has not been fully understood. Recently, however, scientists at University of California, Santa Barbara, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany, and Stanford University studied a mammalian model epithelium’s response to experimentally applied forces, finding a mechanosensitive checkpoint that controls cell cycle progression in response to spatial constraints. The study also showed that stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation, whereas compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest – with cells having no memory of past constraints. This allowed them to develop a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to environment changes in spatial constraints. The researchers say their findings suggest that this regulatory response may well maintain tissue integrity and control developmental and regenerative tissue growth. They conclude that this cellular memory-free adaptation to available space may coordinate cell proliferation and maintain tissue homeostasis. © 2014 Phys.org In addressing these challenges, Streichan says that “our key insight, even though it has been theoretically predicted, was the direct observation that the cell cycle in tissues can be adjusted through mechanics – especially since the ongoing debate on size dependence of cell cycle regulation in single cells made us skeptical. Using a live readout of the cell cycle in combination with quantitative analysis, tissue stretching and boundary release experiments allowed us to construct a simplified picture of the decade-old puzzle of contact inhibition of proliferation.”In the paper, the scientists detail the ways in which cells experience various spatial and mechanical constraints depending on their environmental context in the body. “During development, cells in tissues proliferate, changing the space available to individual members,” Streichan explains. “Cells often stop proliferating when density reaches a critical limit” (This phenomenon is known as density-dependent contact proliferation inhibition.) “In tissues, cells are mechanically coupled through adhesive cell-cell contacts – and as we exercise, cells in our body will be subject to stresses. In another situation, during regeneration after a tissue is wounded, spatial constraints imposed by neighboring cells are lifted at the newly-generated boundary, allowing cells to reactivate their cell cycle.” ‘Glue’ holding together skin cells and other epithelial tissue more active than realized Another finding presented in the paper is that the ability of tissues to support cell cycle progression adapts to the available space through a memory-free control mechanism that may coordinate proliferation patterns to maintain tissue homeostasis. “We used a dynamic cell cycle marker – specifically, a Fluorescent Ubiquitination-based Cell Cycle Indicator, or FUCCI – to distinguish cells that committed to the cell cycle from cells that are not yet in the cell cycle,” Streichan tells Phys.org. (Ubiquitination regulates degradation of cellular proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, controlling a protein’s half-life and expression levels.) “This allowed us to identify a monotonic dependence of cell cycle progression on the space covered by a cell.” In so doing, the researchers found that the more space a cell was given, the more often they would find it committed to the cell cycle. “This dependence,” he continues, “was also observed after stretching or compression of tissues, which made us wonder if there is some kind of hysteresis in cell cycle progression. Using pharmacological cell cycle inhibitors, we could block cells from entering the cell cycle, while keeping the tissue stretched.” As a result, he notes, the cells experienced altered spatial constraints, which should favor cell cycle progression; drug washout releases the block, and the resulting simultaneous relaxation of the tissue reinstalls spatial constraints that disfavor cell cycle progression. “If the decision for cell cycle progression depended on previously available space, we would expect to see cells entering the cell cycle, which we did not,” he points out. “We therefore interpreted these results as a memory-free cell cycle regulation through spatial constraints. Moreover,” he adds, “cells needed to be stretched for a minimal amount of time in order to enter the cell cycle. Together, such a control mechanism may be used to allow tissues to respond elastically to a transient stretch and plastically adapt to sustained stretch.”The scientists propose that controlled tissue growth in many developmental and tumor invasion contexts is mediated by a mechanosensitive checkpoint that monitors spatial constraints to control cell cycle progression at the G1/S boundary. (Mechanosensitivity is a cell’s specific response to mechanical stimulation. The G1/S boundary is a stage in the cell cycle at the interface between the G1 phase and the S phase, beyond which the cell is committed to dividing.) “Our data show that cells sense spatial constraints in their local environment and accordingly progress in the cell cycle,” Streichan explains, “and the collective motion we observe in our boundary release experiments has intriguing parallels to the behavior in invasive tissues. On the other hand,” he points out, “tissues know how to repair wounds and cover the wound site with the right number of cells, even though it’s difficult to imagine how they can determine wound size. Similarly, during development, organs are built roughly from the same number of cells, and reach roughly the same size, suggesting that a mechanosensitive checkpoint may also be at work in vivo.” Streichan adds that investigating the molecular mechanism of cell growth regulation at the G1/S boundary will help them to map this process in more detail.The scientists also propose that differential responses from cells and tissues might result from mechanical coupling between cells in tissues via their adhesive cell–cell contacts. “Cell coupling is achieved through so-called adherens junctions that contain many proteins – some of which, such as cadherin, interact across cells,” Streichan says. (In an epithelium, the cell surfaces are crowded with cadherins, which can bind to the cadherin of neighboring cells.) “At the same time, within the cell these adherens junctions are coupled to the actin cytoskeleton, which can pull on these adherens junctions. This may trigger a signal in some of the constituent proteins, eventually activating a signaling cascade. Research in the field identified a heterogeneous stress landscape in tissues, suggesting that such mechanical signaling mechanisms may lead to heterogeneous responses of cells in tissues.”When asked if their observation that stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation and compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest might be accounted for by torsional strain as a derivative of changes in spatial constraints, Streichan says that based on their measurements, it is hard to distinguish whether cells measure stress or strain. “The difficulty is also in the fact that we don’t know the stress/strain constitutive equation for tissues – and while some experiments indicate it is stress, the final answer remains to be found.” Streichan also acknowledges that other open questions remain, one being whether mechanical constraints control cell cycle progression in growing tissues. “Having analyzed this process in a model epithelium in a Petri dish, the next step would be to study this phenomenon using in vivo systems, such as the wing disc of Drosophila melanogaster larvae and repeat our analysis.”If the biomechanical model developed in the study might lead to translational or clinical applications in wound healing, Streichan predicts, it will be a long process. “However, there are intriguing parallels. I recently learnt from a fellow researcher about eye treatments – similar to our boundary release assay – in which surgeons debrides unhealthy corneal cells, and fresh cells then occupy the resulting free space relatively quickly. Personally, I find the analogy to growing skin – for example, during pregnancy – Interesting. Perhaps one may find a way to even overcome generation of stretch marks, based on a better understanding of the mechanical control of cell cycle regulation. However,” he cautions, “general wounds, such as a deep cut, are much more complex and will involve many other factors that we couldn’t consider in our experimental setting.”In terms of tissue development and disease, Streichan notes that although the scientists verified mechanotransduction (the cellular translation of mechanical signals into biochemical signals) in tissue culture only, there is reason to believe that similar mechanisms might act in vivo during development. “Using the analogy to growing skin again,” Streichan illustrates, “such a mechanical regulation would ensure the ‘right fit’ of skin around our body. Moreover, in the body, organs are lined by tissues, which also must reach the right size. Loosely speaking, cancer is uncontrolled growth – so given that mechanics is a growth regulator, it will be important to understand the molecular mechanism, which may reveal novel oncogenes.”Moving forward, says Streichan, the researchers would like to understand the molecular mechanism of mechanical feedback as a growth regulator. “For this,” he notes, “we’re generating a candidate screen, with which we hope to identify the network of proteins involved in its regulation.” Moreover, Streichan concludes, there are other areas of research that might benefit from their study. “Our work may be helpful for certain medical applications, and perhaps support our understanding of contact inhibition of proliferation in developmental contexts. It also stresses the importance to study mechanotransduction.” Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further Citation: Room to move: Tissue growth controlled by cell cycle response to spatial and mechanical constraints (2014, April 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-room-tissue-growth-cell-response.html Cellular area correlates with cell cycle progression during tissue invasion. (A) Fucci cell cycle marker in tissue invasion assay. (Left) Cells in G0–G1 phase constrained by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barrier. (Right) Shortly before imaging, the boundary is removed, generating free space available to the tissue. (B) Single cell track over time and extraction of features at each time point: position, cell cycle state, and cell area. (C) MDCK Fucci cells in tissue colonization assay. Representative images of the progressing tissue are shown 0 h, 30 h, and 60 h (C–E) after barrier removal. The tissue invades the free space, and cells progress in the cell cycle. Scale bars: 500 μm. (C’–F’) Average cell area at the same time points as in C–E, color-coded as in F’. (D) As C. (D’) As C’. (E) As C. (E’) As C’. (F) Kymograph showing temporal evolution of FCC (color coded). (F’) As F for cell area. (G) Cell area (blue) and FCC (gray) plotted against time aligned to the first occurrence of 30% cycling cells (indicated by the horizontal black dashed line) in a segment behind the leading edge (t =0, vertical black dashed line). (H) Mean FCC plotted against cell area for the whole course of the experiment. Error bar: SD. (I) Duration of G0–G1 (red) phase or S–G2–M (green) phase relative to total cell cycle duration, respectively, plotted against cell area. (Inset) Total cell cycle duration as a function of cell area. (J) Mean cell area for each time point during cell cycle progression. Time is aligned to the G1–S transition (t =0 h, black dotted line). Color-coding below indicates Fucci marker (guide for the eye). Error bars: SD. Credit: Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1323016111
Kolkata: State Forest department has lodged an FIR with the police in connection with the death of the Royal Bengal Tiger whose body was found at Baghghora forest, few kilometres away from Lalgarh with multiple injuries in its body on Friday. The post-mortem report hints that the skull of the tiger was crushed with a heavy substance. Injury marks also suggested that the tribes who took part in the hunting festival attacked the animal with various weapons. A spear remained attached to its throat when its body was recovered by the forest department. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAccording to the preliminary investigation by the police and forest department, the big cat was attacked by nearly 100 tribesmen who took part in the hunting fest. Two hunters — Bablu Hansda and Badal Hansda — were also injured in the tiger attack and are undergoing treatment at Midnapore Medical College and Hospital. It may be mentioned that some of the hunters were enraged when the tiger injured their counterparts a few days ago and they threatened to kill the animal. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedPolice and forest department have started a probe and are trying to identify the hunters who had attacked the Royal Bengal Tiger. The duo who have been injured are also being interrogated by the police. The tiger’s body was sent for post-mortem to Midnapore after it was recovered by the forest officials. The eyewitnesses also said that more than 100 tribal hunters from the local villages reportedly attacked the tiger on Friday afternoon with native weapons like lances, bow and arrows. The locals then informed the forest officials, who rushed to the spot with a mini-truck and recovered its carcass. A local villager said: “I saw the hunters coming to the jungle with weapons like lances and they attacked the tiger. The tiger’s throat was injured with a lance. The body was left in the jungle for quite some time.” A senior forest department official said: “We could not catch it despite all our efforts. The tiger died of spear injuries. We have followed all standard protocols for the tiger-autopsy and the animal was later cremated in Arabari range. We are trying to track the people who have killed it with the help of CCTV footages.”Apart from the cops, the forest department is also carrying out a probe into the death of the tiger. They are trying to identify the hunters who had attacked the animal. However, the district police are not ruling out the possibility of the involvement of outsiders in this connection so far. The preliminary investigation says that the animal was attacked by the hunters who were heavily equipped with various weapons. As the animal was repeatedly hit, its skull got fractured. There was, however, no poison found in its body. The full-grown tiger weighed around 220 kgs and it was around 10-12 year old.
The Apeejay Arts complex opens its doors to yet another dramatic show, Outpost by artiste Samar Singh Jodha. His latest enterprise is a visual disquisition on a global culture where individual aesthetic notions are framed by commercial interests, and homogenised to such a degree by mass media that spontaneous individual expressions often emerge as accidental bi-products of non-aesthetic pursuits.He highlights this unusual state of affairs via a pictorial trope of discarded containers fashioned into habitat by miners in India’s pristine northeast. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The fact that Jodha foregrounds his work with a people given to excavating precious minerals from the earth’s womb to keep the engines of the same mass culture and industry running, adds poignant irony to his endeavour. The interplay of narratives represented by a broken people and their robust expression unravels the threads of a global technopoly that promises a rosy future to many of us via rapid innovation, while simultaneously condemning many others to centuries-old regression. When: January 28 – March 31 Timings: 11 am to 7 pm Where: Apeejay Media Gallery, Mathura Road
India Habitat Centre’s annual Habitat Film Festival kicked off on May 8 in the city with the opening screening of Margarita, With A Straw directed by Shonali Bose and starring Kalki Koechlin. Kalki enthusiastically interacted with the audience. Post screening she presented her views, discussed some issues and shared her anecdotes while the movie was shot.An exhibition titled Rhythm, Raga and Melody in collaboration with National Film Archive of India, Pune was also inaugurated by Kalki Koechlin, Bauddhayan Mukherji – Director of Bengali movie Teen Kahon, Rakesh Kacker – Director, India Habitat Centre, and Vidyun Singh – Programme Director, India Habitat Centre at the Convention Centre Foyer just before the opening screening. The exhibition of around 90 films posters highlights the contribution of music in Hindi Cinema. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The other film which was screened on Day one was Bauddhayan Mukherji directed Bengali movie Teen Kahon. It seemed that it touched the audience immensely and the post screening interaction was lively.One of the highly anticipated and most loved events of the Habitat cultural calendar, the film festival showcases the Best of Pan-Indian Cinema from the past year. This year it will feature 48 films in 13 languages presenting some fresh and innovative storylines, stunning cinematography, veteran actors and directors, rising stars and award winning performances of 2014-2015 apart from 19 National Award Winning Films. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixA major attraction of this edition of the Habitat Film Festival is the Kamal Haasan retrospective. Kamal Haasan’s retrospective showcase his amazing multifaceted talent with Vishwaroopam, Ek Duje Ke Liye, Sadma, Chachi 420 and Saagar, Hey Ram (in Hindi) and Virumandi, Nagayan and Eenadu (in Tamil) and opened on May 9 with an interaction with the star followed by the screening of Vishwaroopam.Over the next 10 days, Habitat Film Festival will see the screening of several outstanding films including Marana Dandane (Kannada), Bey Yaar (Gujarati), Lajwanti and Gour Hari Dastaan (Hindi), Quolf (Kashmiri), Shukha Asuchi (Oriya), Elizabeth Ekadasi & Ek Hazarachi Note (Marathi), Ottal (Malayalam), Qissa, Punjab 1984 and Chaar Sahibzaade (Punjabi), Pallepfam(Manipuri), among a host of other films from various regions and languages.
If you are trying to lose weight relying simply on “fitness” foods, it may backfire, new research suggests. The “fitness” branding encourages consumers to eat more of those foods and to exercise less, potentially undermining their efforts to lose or control their weight, the study said.“Unless a food was forbidden by their diet, branding the product as ‘fit’ increased consumption for those trying to watch their weight,” said study author Hans Baumgartner from Pennsylvania State University in the US, and colleagues. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“To make matters worse, these eaters also reduced their physical activity, apparently seeing the ‘fit’ food as a substitute for exercise,” the researchers said. The authors investigated the effects of fitness-branded food on consumption and physical activity in “restrained” eaters — eaters who are chronically concerned about their body weight.Participants were given
Kolkata: The Bangladesh government, on the occasion of ‘Vijay Diwas’, posthumously honoured 12 Indian Armed Forces personnel on Sunday for sacrificing their lives during the 1971 Indo-Pak War. The day was celebrated at the Bangladesh Deputy High Commission’s office in the city, where Kolkata Mayor Firhad Hakim was present as the Chief Guest. Describing the honouring of the families of the martyred personnel as a great initiative by the Bangladesh government, GOC-in-C Eastern Command of the Army Lt Gen M M Naravane said the process of honouring martyred soldiers will continue in the years to come and it will strengthen the bond between the two countries. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”We were forced into this conflict because of a humanitarian crisis of gigantic proportion, resulting in the annihilation of Pakistan Army and the birth of Bangladesh,” Naravane said. “Very rarely has it happened that when two countries fight, a third country is born,” he added. The Bangladesh government has decided to honour over 1,600 Indian Armed Forces personnel who laid down their lives in the eastern theatre during the 1971 Indo-Pak War. Vijay Diwas (victory day) is celebrated every year on this day to mark India’s decisive win over Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe families of seven Indian Army soldiers, two Air Force, two BSF personnel and one Navy personnel were handed over ‘Sammanana’ plaques by Bangladesh Minister of Liberation War Affairs A K M Mozammel Haque at the Indian Army’s Eastern Command Headquarter Fort William here. Prior to this, a wreath laying ceremony was held at Vijay Smarak to pay respects to the martyred soldiers. Honouring soldiers who were martyred in the war in the eastern theatre commenced in 2017 with the Bangladesh prime minister giving away the plaques to families of seven soldiers, he said. The GOC-in-C of Eastern Command, the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Naval Command, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Air Command, retired Armed Forces officers and leaders of a Bangladeshi delegation visiting India for the occasion, laid the wreaths at the memorial. The Bangladesh delegation included 30 ‘Muktijoddhas’, who took part in the liberation war, and six serving officers of Bangladesh’s Armed Forces. Describing December 16 as the most glorious day in the life of every Bengali, Haque said the fruits of freedom were achieved after suffering a nine-month long genocide by the Pakistani forces, wherein 30 lakh people lost their lives and two lakh women were raped. “The Indian soldiers fought for our cause and laid down their lives,” he said.
Kolkata: Tension ran high at Institute of Neurosciences Kolkata (INK) at Mullick Bazar on Friday morning after family members of a patient, who died in the hospital, ransacked a portion of the hospital alleging negligence.The family members of the victim alleged that the patient died of negligence on part of the hospital authorities. According to police, a 65-year-old man from Garden Reach area was taken to the hospital on January 14 after he complained of chest pain. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedA chaos broke out at the hospital on Friday morning after the patient was declared dead by the hospital authorities. Some family members of the victim staged a demonstration at the Reception area of the hospital. Some other later joined the agitators. They ransacked a portion of the hospital and damaged the registration book of the patients and other documents. Some of the staff members of the hospital were also manhandled by the irate mob. The injured staffers have been admitted to the hospital after suffering injuries. The hospital authorities called up Beniapukur police station and a huge contingent of police rushed to the spot and dispersed the mob. They brought the situation under control. The hospital authorities, however, deny such allegations and have lodged a complaint at the police station following which a probe has been initiated. One person has reportedly been detained for interrogation. A detailed probe has been initiated.