LinkedIn Share on Facebook Email Share Share on Twitter Pinterest New research has identified functional connectivities in the brain that mediate the association between depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. The findings were published in JAMA Psychiatry.“Nowadays depression and sleep problem are two of the most prevalent mental problems. To make matters worse, depression and sleep problems often go hand-in-hand, which has been observed more than a hundred years,” said study author Jianfeng Feng of Fudan University.About 75% of depressed patients report significant levels of sleep disturbance and people with insomnia also have a higher risk of developing depression. “However, until now, there was not an efficient way for the treatment of these two problems due to the poor understanding of their underlying mechanism,” Feng explained. “Our research group has worked on depression for more than ten years and produced many significant results. For example, the findings of our previous work published in Brain have shown promise for new treatments.”“In this work, we tried to figure out what are the brain systems associated with both depression and sleep quality. The answers to this question may lead to better treatments for both depression and sleep, especially for improving the sleep quality of depressive patients.”The researchers examined data from 1,017 participants who were included in the March 2017 public data release from the Human Connectome Project. They found that both poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms were associated with neural connectivities involving the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, and the precuneus.“Our analysis shows that the functional connections between the areas of the brain associated with short-term memory, the self, and negative emotions are increased in both poor sleep and depressive participants. So people with poor sleep or depression may focus too much on the negative things and dwell on bad thoughts, which leads to a poor quality of sleep,” Feng told PsyPost.The study — like all research — has limitations.“We only identified the neural connectivity that underlies the association between depression and sleep. There are many interesting and important questions still need to be addressed,” Feng explained. “For example, the causal relation between sleep and depression is an important topic that deserves much further investigation by using experimental manipulation or treatment administration.”“Another problem is the treatment of sleep problems and depression,” Feng added. “Future research could examine whether we could improve the symptom of insomnia and depression based on our findings, such as using transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation to stimulate the brain areas identified in this work.”The study, “Functional Connectivities in the Brain That Mediate the Association Between Depressive Problems and Sleep Quality“, was authored by Wei Cheng, Edmund T. Rolls, Hongtao Ruan, and Jianfeng Feng.
Sarah Hannett (instructed by John Ford Solicitors) for the claimant; Colin Thomann (instructed by the Treasury Solicitor) for the secretary of state. R (on the application of Arogundade) v Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills: QBD (Admin) (Mr Robin Purchas QC (sitting as a deputy High Court judge)): 7 September 2012 Education – Grant for study – Eligibility The claimant, a national of Nigeria, entered the UK on 3 August 2003 on a visitor’s visa, which expired on 2 January 2004. She subsequently overstayed that visa without leave to remain under the Immigration Act 1971. In 2006, the claimant suffered serious brain injury caused by carbon monoxide gas poisoning from a faulty boiler in her home. In September 2007, she applied for leave to remain. That application was refused but an appeal to the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal succeeded on human rights grounds and the claimant was granted discretionary leave to remain in 2009. The claimant was accepted for a BA degree at a London university and she was granted student support for the academic year 2009/10. However, the university enrolled the claimant as an overseas student. That led to judicial review proceedings, which resulted in a consent order that the university should treat the claimant as ‘a person with leave to remain’ under the Education (Fees and Awards) (England) Regulations 2007. However, the claimant’s past status as an overstayer came to light, which led to the cancellation of her student grant payments for the academic year 2010/11. The reason stated for cancellation was that the claimant did not have the required three years ‘ordinary residence’ at the relevant time. The claimant’s appeal against that decision was unsuccessful. The secretary of state confirmed the decision, withdrawing the student grant from the claimant on the ground that unlawful residence could not constitute ordinary residence for the purposes of the three years ordinary residence qualification under paragraph 5(1)(c) of schedule 1 to the Education (Student Support) Regulations 2009 (the 2009 regulations). The claimant sought judicial review of the decision of the secretary of state. The question for determination was whether residence in the UK, which was unlawful under the 1971 act, could qualify as ordinary residence for the purpose of paragraph 5(1)(c) of schedule 1 to the 2009 regulations. Consideration was given to the opinion of Lord Scarman in Shah v Barnet London Borough Council  1 All ER 226. The court ruled: Ordinary residence for the purposes of paragraph 5(1)(c) of schedule 1 to the 2009 regulations required lawful residence and would not include residence in breach of the immigration rules (see  of the judgment). There was nothing in the authorities or in the relevant regulations or subsequent legislative changes which would undermine or displace the approach clearly and authoritatively set out by Lord Scarman in Shah (see  of the judgment). Applying that interpretation to the instant case, the claim failed (see  of the judgment). Shah v Barnet London Borough Council  1 All ER 226 applied.
Samantha MangwanaCM Murray‘It is only by requiring similar transparency on the ethnicity pay gap that organisations will start to understand this problem in order to tackle it,’ she said. ‘While the ‘glass ceiling’ blocking female leadership in the work place is now recognised, this is part of a double whammy faced by many black and ethnic minority people, for whom ‘sticky floors’ prevent them from progressing in the first place.’Meanwhile, City firms Norton Rose Fulbright and Baker McKenzie are among signatories a charter committing themselves to ensuring employees from a minority ethnic background succeed. The Race at Work Charter commits businesses to principles and actions to help the recruitment and progression of minority ethnic employees.Sarah Gregory, diversity and inclusion partner at Baker McKenzie, said: ‘Huge progress has been made to improve the experience of ethnic minority colleagues in the workplace, but more still needs to be done. This is why, we are very excited today to be signing the Race at Work Charter and together with the government and other businesses look at improving ethnic minority representation at all levels of seniority.’ Law firms could face another dilemma about whether or not partners should be treated as employees as the prospect of ethnicity pay gap reporting looms.The government has begun seeking organisations’ views on reporting the pay gap for people from different ethnic backgrounds. The consultation, open until January, promises to set out in detail what information employers should publish. A Downing Street spokesperson did not respond to a request for comment on the critea for reporting and whether law firms will be required to include partners in the data.During this year’s gender pay gap reporting law firms came under fire for omitting partners on the grounds that they are ‘not employees’. Several firms subsequently recalculated their reports to include partners, after which the average gender pay gap signigicantly increased.Samantha Mangwana, partner at CM Murray, said the gender pay gap reporting showed the scale of the problem and provided a ‘catalyst for change’.
CZECH railwaymen looking forward to running 200 km/h tilting trains between Berlin, Praha and Wien may have to wait a little longer. CKD Praha announced last month that delivery of the prototype Class 680 Integral had slipped by another nine months to April 15 next year.When the contract for 10 sets was awarded to the CKD-MSV-Siemens-Fiat consortium in 1995, the prototype was due to roll by the end of 1997, but last year this was postponed to July 1998. Citing problems with the tilt equipment and aluminium bodyshells, CKD also admitted that the price has risen from KC4·1bn to KC4·5bn. The company still hopes to begin trials before the end of this year and claims that test running under three electrical systems in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic can still be completed in time to have all 10 sets in service by the May 2000 timetable change as planned. o